(As mentioned) In Islam, Haneef is defined as the one who will always gravitate towards that which is correct, from falsehood to truth.
(As mentioned) The Muwatta of Imam Malik (RA) is basically the book of the evidences of Khilaf, and it has his (RA) subtle proofs for all 4 Madhabs, plus other Madhabs no longer extant.
As a cheering up for the beleaguered Muslim, we need to remember that attitudes towards Islam will definitely change, if not in this world, then surely in the next. As a crude analogy think of blatant naked racism, so many people died due to this, yet now overt, explicit racism is unacceptable in many parts of the world, and even criminally so in some places – so as Muslims we should take heart, but also remain vigilant.
Video games today have the amazing ability to dissocialize people as they grow up. This is interesting, since Islamic communities are told that they are anti-social, yet what is the worst thing for socialization than a teenager growing up who cannot even greet his relatives because he cannot take his eyes off of the video games he is playing?
Things like accumulating wealth, power, arrogance, sex, drugs, alcohol, etc., are strategies from Shaytan that are used to cover the heart (“kufr” upon the heart) for the time when the person is confronted with the truth of Islam… so that their heart may not feel agitated when seeing the contradiction between what wrongs they are doing and what they have accumulated on the one hand, and the truth of Islam on the other.
(As mentioned) The intellect is meant to hobble the person and restrain him from doing just whatever one feels like impulsively. In the case of the Ulamaa’ this reality should be even more pronounced.
Why did Malcolm X become so powerful and influential? This is because he had control of the cognitive framework of his language. This is critical. But this also shows the rebirth and the awakening of the heart, and those who have such an awakening can attest to this reality; one of its manifestations is love of knowledge.
(As mentioned) The paradox of not knowing whether a ‘red apple’ actually exists (i.e. we only know of a molecular structure that happens to be perceived as a red apple) is one of the disasters of reductionism and of bifurcation – something brought up first by Descartes.
Irreligious people are shallow with regards to ultimate concerns of life- this is what is seen from them, since humans are at the core religious beings.
Anger can be useful for repelling dangers, and appetites are useful for acquiring good benefits (for example how could one drink, eat or reproduce without appetites?)